Prof. Dr. ISMAIL YILDIRIM
Background: Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) refers to the loss of integrity of membranes before onset of labor, with resulting leakage of amniotic fluid and establishment of communication between the amniotic cavity and the endocervical canal and vagina. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) complicates 5-10 % of pregnancies. Approximately 60-70 % of term PROM cases are followed by the onset of labor within 24 hours. Diagnosis and proper management is very important. In spite of many studies available in the literature, the clinical management is surprisingly controversial The aim of the study was to compare the fetal and maternal outcomes of actively managed and expectantly managed term PROM.
Methods: In this observational study we included 200 women with diagnosed prelabour rupture of membranes. All women had gestational age >36 weeks and <4o weeks with singleton pregnancy and vertex presentation. Study excluded all patients with previous uterine scar or with any medical or surgical disorder. They were randomly divided in two groups with 100 women each: Group A which was induced with PGE1 or oxytocin depending on their cervical score and Group E which was managed expectantly and late induction after 24 hours was done. Both the groups were given intravenous antibiotics. They were evaluated on the basis of fetal and maternal outcomes.
Results: In this study we found that 70% women who were managed expectantly went in labour within 24 hours of PROM. But PROM to delivery interval was longer in expectantly managed as compared to actively managed or induced group. Rate of cesarean was more in induced group but was statistically insignificant when compared in both the groups. So was NICU admission more in expectant group but was statistically insignificant when compared in both the groups.
Conclusions: Expectant managed can be done in patients with term PROM to reduce the cesarean rate with proper antibiotic prophylaxis. There was no significant difference in maternal and fetal outcomes of both the management.
This paper discusses the potential benefits of employing Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) for improving the pronunciation of English as a Foreign Language students in Saudi Arabia. The paper starts with a review of the available literature. It then goes on to examine two main aspects related to the use of CALL, namely whether using CALL is effective for developing clear pronunciation and what students feel about using this type of computer program for second language learning. The findings of this study reveal that CALL is not only effective but is viewed highly by students. Students’ pronunciation can be developed more rapidly through the use of this type of program as they receive instantaneous feedback on their performance. It was found to reduce some to the stress associated with second language speaking and thus made learning more enjoyable.
The Andaman & Nicobar coast constitute various ecological habitats that support large groups of marine organisms. These habitats help to unravel the faunal similarities and special features in the faunal composition among regions and habitats examined. The faunal diversity on the rocky shores is generally governed by the tides. The animals on the rocky shore undergo stress due to changing environmental factors. In the present study an attempt was made to study the distribution of marine fauna along the rocky shore of Burmanella coast. During the study two sites were selected and named a Stn 1(N11˚30.998ꞌ and E92˚44.100ꞌ) and Stn 2 (N11˚31.606ꞌ and E92˚43.464ꞌ). The present study investigated rich diversity of macro faunal groups which included echinoderms, molluscs, crabs, polychaetes etc.
This paper present, fifth order Runge-Kutta method (RK5) for solving initial value problems of fourth order ordinary differential equations. The proposed method is quite efficient and practically well suited for solving these problems. The numerical solutions are in good agreement with the exact solutions. Three model examples (linear and non-linear) are given to demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of the methods. Point wise absolute errors are obtained by using MATLAB software. The present approximate results are found in good agreement with the exact solutions than the other methods mentioned in the literatures.
The application of organic fertilizers had a positive effect on yield characters such as number of flower buds, number of fruits and length of fruits in Okra. The results revealed that flower formation was higher in plants amended with organic manure followed by Farmyard manure (FYM). The fruit length and fruit weight were significantly increased with the soil amended with vermicompost. The fruit weight was directly correlated with the harvest index of okra. The organic fertilizers significantly increased the bacterial and fungal population in the amended soil than control soil. The vermicompost amended soil had the maximum population level of both bacteria and fungi followed by organic manure. The positive effect of organic fertilizers also reflected the soil nutrient content also. There was a significant difference was observed on the macronutrients such as N and P in the organic fertilizer amended soil over the control. From the present study, it is clear that the amendment of organic fertilizers had beneficial effect on yield characters of okra. Further, the beneficial effect was not only yielding but also in the soil characters as well as nutrient status of the soil also. The cumulative effect of soil characters boost up the yield characters of okra.
A 20 year old pregnant female with Klippel Feil Syndrome was scheduled for emergency caesarian section during her first pregnancy. We present the successful anaesthetic management of this patient highlighting the various anomalies associated with Klippel Feil Syndrome and the presence of a difficult airway.
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) belongs to the family moraceae, Mulberry family.The seeds of which are used in several culinary operations. Seeds were sun-dried, roasted and ground to a fine powder. Ladoo was prepared using JSF. Bulk density, swelling power, water absorption and oil absorption capacity of the JSF was 0.67, 5.24, 7.65 and 8.61 respectively. The overall acceptability of the product was 8.7. Thus, the aim of the study was to formulate a traditional sweet using jackfruit seed flour, which is an edible by-product.
Tomato peel contains large amount of polysaccharides such as fiber and pectin, which represents potential materials to be used as ingredient in the food industry. The peels from fresh and sound tomatoes were carefully removed and dried in a tray drier at 80ºC for 6 hours, cooled, milled and sieved. Tomato soup was prepared using tomato peel as a thickener. Bulk density, swelling power, water absorption and oil absorption capacity of the peel powder was 10, 4.56, 6.16 and 7.83 respectively. The peel powder was also tested on other physico-chemical parameters. The overall acceptability of the soup was 8.4.
Ice cream is a frozen dessert usually made from dairy products Brown rice milk is a useful dairy substitute. During the process of germination, Gama Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) levels and the amount of important nutrients like calcium, fibre and potassium have been known to increase. The study aimed at formulating Germinated Brown Rice (GBR) milk ice cream as a non-dairy substitute, to be consumed by the people who are lactose intolerant and those who are allergic to soy. The GBR ice cream was primarily prepared by extracting GBR milk and by combining methods of heating, condensation, homogenization and freezing using standard procedures. A variation with a combination of GBR milk and dairy milk in the ratio of 1: 1 was also prepared. The experimental products were analyzed for Physico- chemical tests like TSS, Protein, Fat, SNF and Weight by Volume using standard AOAC methods. Sensory evaluation was conducted with the help of 20 semi-trained panelists for color, flavor, taste, texture, mouth feel, sweetness, after taste and over all acceptability of the product on a standard 9 point hedonic scale. The results for GBR milk ice cream revealed the following: protein 3.8%, TSS 33±5, Fat 10.56%, SNF 25.44%, Weight by volume 535.2. Similarly the content in variation was observed to be: protein 4%, TSS 33±5, Fat 13.88%, SNF 22.12%, Weight by volume 546. The products were well accepted and had an overall acceptability of 8.75 for 100% GBR milk ice cream and 8.5 for 50% GBR milk ice cream. Thus the present study qualifies to identify GBR milk as the best non-dairy substitute in ice cream preparation.
The current study is aimed at formulating a mocktail squash and to assess its physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. The squash was formulated using watermelon and pineapple. Fresh watermelon and pineapple juice were extracted. The fruit juices were mixed in the ratio of 3:2. Squash was formulated from juice, sugar and distilled water in the ratio 1:1.5:1. The formulated squash was evaluated on its physico chemical properties like pH, titratable acidity, reducing sugars and total sugars using standard protocols. The results of the physico chemical analysis were as follows: The pH of the squash was found to be 4.26±0.02. The titratable acidity was 4.14± 0.53%. Reducing sugar content was 11.36% while the total sugars present were found to be 10.83±1.4%. The product was found to be sensorially well accepted by semi trained panellists and had an overall acceptability of 8.1. Thus this study reveals the possibility of preserving watermelon and pineapple juice in the form of a squash.