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Current Issue

The effect of cement stabilization on the physical and mechanical properties of compressed earth blocks: in a coastal city: the case of Douala in Cameroon

Author: 
The effect of cement stabilization on the physical and mechanical properties of compressed earth blocks: in a coastal city: the case of Douala in Cameroon
Abstract: 

Housing affordability remains a key challenge in some developing countries including Cameroon. Recent studies reveal that the use of local building materials has been considered the cornerstone of sustainable construction that can be used in providing affordable housing. Despite the cheapness and availability of local building materials as earth block, its uptake has been very slow. This has been partly due to the fact that, its technical know-how is not yet vulgarized, the potential of local building materials towards the delivery of affordable housing is still not known, and its principles and practices are not yet imbedded in the practice of the construction industry. In the other hand, the constructions made in earth suffer from pathologies due to the humidity. These alter their durability and strength compared to other materials such as cement blocks or concrete. Cement stabilization is one of the technical methods of earth blocks properties improving, as local building materials that can be used in the provision of affordable housing in Cameroon. The aim of this study to investigate the effect of the stabilization rate on earth blocks properties applied in a construction project located in Douala. It reports an ongoing laboratory investigation in which the compressive strength of stabilized earth blocks is studied under dry and wet curing conditions. Five rates of cement stabilization 0%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% were used on the specimens of 230 × 110 × 80 mm. At 28 days of curing, the greatest values of the wet and dry cured compressive strength obtained were 4.66 MPa and 2.56 MPa respectively, with an absorption rate of 14.67% at 14 days of curing for a 10% of cement content.

Pathophysiology of metastatic tumors of oral cavity: A Review

Author: 
Dr. Shivani Singh and Dr. Raghvendra Narayan
Abstract: 

Carcinoma is a complex disease where basic physiological processes of the body become unregulated, such as cell division, apoptosis and cell migration. “Metastasis is defined as the transfer of the cancer cells from one organ or part to another site, not directly connected with it”. Metastasis of a carcinoma basically leads to the morbidity and eventual mortality. Metastatic tumor show similar histology with the primary malignancy and are separated by an amount of intervening healthy tissue. Carcinomas (83%) when compared to sarcomas (17%), are more commonly occurring oral metastatic tumor. Metastasis to the oral cavity is usually less common accounting almost 1% of all the oral malignant tumors. It may involve oral soft tissues and the jaw bones. Oral metastases may be the first sign of the metastatic spread in 25% of cases where as in 23% cases it is the first indication of an undiscovered malignancy at a distant site. Many tumors of internal organs such as liver, kidney, lung or gastric, sometimes may not have severe sign & symptoms in its earliest stage and so, oral metastasis may expose the primary tumor site. Therefore, oral lesions and manifestations may suspect the possibility of metastasis from distant sites and this mandate the necessary investigations for early diagnosis, treatment and better prognosis of the patient.

Study on removal of phenol using adsorption process

Author: 
Ashish Kumar, Vinita Khandegar and Sanigdha Acharya
Abstract: 

Wastewaters from various types of industries contain different types of phenols. Phenolic compounds are toxic substances and some are known or suspected carcinogens. Therefore it is important to remove phenol and phenolic compounds from contaminated industrial and aqueous streams before discharged into any water bodies. It is well known that adsorption is an efficient method for removal of various pollutants from wastewater. Several adsorbents have been used for treatment of wastewater and removal of phenolic compounds. In the present study, efforts have been made for removal of phenol from aqueous solution using zeolite as an adsorbent. The adsorbent potential was tested on batch synthetic solutions containing 1-5 (mg/L) phenol concentration at room temperature. The influence of solution pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial phenol concentration on the removal efficiency of phenol from water was investigated. A 94 % phenol removal efficiency was obtained for an adsorption time of 4 hr at 7 pH and 1 g of adsorbent dose. The experimental data were modeled using the Langmuir, Freundlich isotherms. The Langmuir model was found to best represent our data revealing a monolayer adsorption with a maximum adsorption capacity 1.19 mg/g at 25 °C, for 1 g of adsorbent dose and 5 mg/L initial phenol concentration. The kinetic data were analyzed using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion model. The results suggested that the phenol adsorption at room temperature was best represented by the pseudo-second-order equation. The study showed that the zeolite can be used as ecofriendly and effective sorbent for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions.

Seasonal toxicological profile of three puffer fishes collected along digha coastal belt, West Bengal, India

Author: 
Rudra Prasad Nath and Jayanta Kumar Kundu
Abstract: 

Puffer fish intoxication is extremely frequent in countries like Japan, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Philippines, Thailand, Bangladesh, India etc. In Digha coastal belt of West Bengal, India, three puffer fishes are mostly abundant viz. Lagocephalus lunaris (Bloch and Schneider, 1801); Takifugu oblongus (Bloch, 1786); Tetraodon fluviatilis (Hamilton, 1822). These three puffer fish species are studied for toxicological characterization. In the present study, Gonado-Somatic Index (GSI), Hepato-Somatic Index (HSI) and Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) is observed. To understand the toxicity level in three different seasons, LD50 has been done by using Labeo rohita as test animal. Isolated toxin of puffer fishes was injected intramuscularly to Labeo rohita and toxicity was measured in three different seasons that are pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon. It is observed that in three puffer fishes toxicity level in monsoon season is highest as compared to other seasons. Gonad and liver tissue is more or less equally toxic in three puffer fishes. More lethal potency of gonad has a correlation with spawning and egg maturity.

Internal controls impact on the effective management of devolved revenue fund in the county government of Kakamega, Kenya

Author: 
Magoma Margaret Onyatta, Oseno Ben and Onyango Albert Odhiamb
Abstract: 

Effective internal controls play an important role in preventing and minimizing occurrence of errors, wastage and fraud in different organisations. Many devolved units in Kenya known as county governments have consistently failed to fully account for collected revenues and the spending of funds that they receive from the national treasury according to reports by the Auditor General and the Controller of Budget of Kenya. Kakamega county was one of the counties with questionable revenue collection performance and spending in the financial year 2015-2016. The county collected only about 25 percent of the estimated revenues while resource allocation was also inconsistent with planned spending. Hence this occurrence motivated the study to investigate effectiveness of existing internal controls in managing devolved revenue fund in the county government of Kakamega. The study used a survey method to collect and analyse cross-sectional data from a sample of 56 Accounting, Auditing and Revenue Officers spread out in the sub units of the county. A Committee on Sponsoring Organization (COSO) on the Trademill Framework Questionnaire was administered to the sampled respondents. Five components of internal controls; control environment, control activities, risk assessment, information communication and monitoring activities were tested by correlation and regression techniques using SPSS 21. The results of analysis show that while all the five components of internal control are directly and significantly associated with an effective internal control system, control environment had the strongest relationship and also the only predictor of an effective system of internal control in the county government of Kakamega. It explained about 70 percent of the variation in the effectiveness of internal control in the Kakamega county government. Therefore the paper recommends that county governments should lay more emphasis on the control environment in order to mitigate risks of fraud, corruption and wastage of the revenue fund.

Evaluation of colour fastness to washing studied on Himalayan nettle, cotton and cotton/nettle fabric blends

Author: 
Dr. Reena Agrawal and Neha Kestwal
Abstract: 

This research work aims towards study effect of washing on dyed Himalayan Nettle, Cotton and their blends. For this 100% Himalayan Nettle, 100% Cotton and Cotton X Nettle (60 X 40) blends in counts of 3s, 5s, 6s, 7s and 8s are developed. The results obtained are critically analysed.

Mycoflora associated with farmer stored seeds of chickpea and pigeon pea collected from Satara

Author: 
Geetha Menon
Abstract: 

Seeds harbor a considerable load of several fungal inoculums, responsible for various seed–borne diseases and damage. Cereals and pulses constitute the regular basic food of the masses that supply both carbohydrates and protein in their regular diet. Seeds of two pulses Cicer arietinum L. (Chickpea) & Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp (Pigeon pea) were collected from the farmers of Satara (Maharashtra), India and studied for the associated fungal flora using standard Blotter method, Agar plate (Czapek Dox medium) and Seed Washing Methods. On the unsterilized seeds of Cicer arietinum L. (Chickpea) twenty three species of fungi belonging to ten genera and on the seeds of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp (Pigeon pea) twenty species belonging to two genera were observed. The most commonly isolated genera were Aspergillus, Alternaria, Fusarium and Penicillium while other prominent fungi detected on the pulse crops were Cladosporium, Curvularia, Verticillium and Drechslera.

Quantification of lycopene extracted from watermelon and tomato varieties from nakulabye market in Kampala, Uganda

Author: 
Haji Khamis, Kituyi Lusweti, Haji Mwevura, Steven Nyanzi and Kiremire
Abstract: 

Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and red-fleshed watermelons (Citrullus lanatus) contain a high level of lycopene, which has been reported to have many important health benefits. Watermelon tomato varieties are available plentifully in Uganda, however, little information existing in Uganda concerning the quantity of lycopene in watermelon and tomato varieties. The objective of this study was to separate and quantify lycopene from selected watermelon and tomato varieties from Uganda. The varieties were bought from Nakulabye market in Kampala, and extracted by using solvent system of hexane/acetone/ethyl acetate (4:2:1 v/v/v). The extracts were filtered and the lycopene layer separated from the filtrate, washed, dried by rotary evaporator and then dissolved in hexane. The concentrated hexane solution was then fractionated by using an alumina column chromatography. The lycopene fractions were collected, dried by using nitrogen gas and then weighed by chemical balance. The solutions of lycopene in hexane were scanned by using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The results obtained showed that the quantity of lycopene varies from140 μg/g to 3400 μg/g wet weight in tomato and from 326 μg/g to 1670 μg/g in watermelon. The variation is caused by different conditions. Both tomato varieties and watermelons contain appreciable quantity of lycopene necessary for daily food intake. It is advisable to investigate the best conditions for growing tomatoes and watermelons so as to contain the highest possible quantity of lycopene.

Matrix representation of double layered complete fuzzy graph

Author: 
Jon Arockiaraj, J. and Chandrasekaran, V.
Abstract: 

In this paper, we have defined a new matrix representation using edge membership values of the complete fuzzy graph. Uncertainties in a problem are represented as fuzzy matrices using fuzzy principles. Recent days fuzzy matrices have become very famous. In this paper unlike the usual matrix representation of a fuzzy graph with respect to vertices, a new matrix representation with edge membership values as rows and columns is introduced. The relationship between the double layered complete fuzzy graph and the given fuzzy graph whose crisp graph is a complete are analyzed.

Districtwise distribution of households by source of drinking water in Karnataka – A decadal changes (2001- 2011)

Author: 
Dr. Mallanna, C.
Abstract: 

Water is one of the most precious natural resources and a key element in the socio-economic development of a country. The total quantity of water available on the globe is the same as it was two thousand years ago. At the time of independence, the per capita availability of water in India was 6008 cubic meters a year. It came down to 5,177 cubic meters in 1951 to 1,820 cubic meters a year in 2001. Drinking water, in adequate quantity and quality is a basic requirement for life and a determinant of standard of life. Of all the other major problems rural water supply is one the major challenges that has been addressed by the government and attempts made towards tackling the crisis in providing safe and adequate quantity of water to the rural people. However the problem has become still more intense, as India is huge and growing population is putting a severe strain on all of the country’s natural resources. India (Including Karnataka State) have made progress in the supply of adequate and safe drinking water to its people, but gross disparity is exists in coverage of all the districts of the State. This paper is mainly spread on the light about the district wise decadal (2001-2011) changes of drinking water supply system in rural areas of the Karnataka State.

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