Prof. Dr. ISMAIL YILDIRIM
Harmony between the teeth, gums and the lips are required for creating a beautiful and pleasing smile profile. Discrepancies in any one of the factors results in excessive gingival display and short clinical crowns which are not esthetically acceptable, ultimately affects the confidence of the person. Gummy smile caused due to gum overgrowth over the teeth can be treated by esthetic crown lengthening procedures where excess gingiva is removed to expose the natural length of the teeth. This chapter reports about esthetic crown lengthening procedure in patient with excessive gingival display.
The ethno botany of the medicinal plants of Sadda Kurram is an important for understanding cultures and traditions of the area. The present study was aimed to document and perform quantitative evaluation of the medicinal plants used for different disorders in the study area. Medicinal plants were collected from different sites and its traditional use from herbal practitioners and native senior villagers was recorded. The fully dried specimens were then mounted on herbarium sheets. A set of voucher specimens were deposited to the Herbarium Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan (HUP). This study documents 20 medicinal plant species belonging to 18 genera and 20 species of family Asteraceae, most commonly used by the indigenous people. The botanical name, family name, part used, and the application of the plants have been provided in this paper. Leaves were the leading used part (10, 40%) followed by roots (4, 16%), flower 3 (12%).Stomach disorders were the most commonly treated ailments followed by diuretic and general body weakness. Highest used value was recorded for Seriphidiumkurramense (UVi)=0.97 and lowest for Sonchus asper and Lacunae nudicaulis (UVi)=0.50 respectively. Seriphidiumkurramense (RFCs=0.92) is most cited by the local people for ailments followed by cichoriumintybus (RFCs=0.77) and Artemisia absinthium (RFCs=0.74). The highest Consensus index (CI%=92.3) was recorded for Launaeanudicaulis followed by Conyzacanadensis (CI%=76.9) and Sonchusasper (CI%74.4) respectively. These plants communicate community of the study area from generation to generation through the cultural knowledge. So for its conservation, there is a dire need to document it and it is also recommended to evaluate the documented plants pharmacological efficacy.
Companies in the manufacturing and service sectors have realizing that to achieve economies of scale they need to formulate management policies based on modern business strategies. Best way of optimizing their product or service for market at the same time. The use of information technology in almost every type of industrial process has contributed to the development of the strategies and tactics. The strategies that support product development or facilities development have to move at a much faster speed than ever before. Modern business strategies lay stress on using the latest communication tools such as video conferencing and e-mail for improving communication within the organization as well as with clients. Modern characteristics of management techniques are: Systematic, Analytical, Quantitative, Applications of management techniques, Traditional methods of management are primarily based on behavioural sciences, The conventional methods of management, Modern management techniques, Statistical techniques, Mathematical techniques, Simulation study/model System analysis, Linear programming, Inventory control, Precedence and arrow diagramming, Network analysis PERT CPM, Financial techniques, Precedence Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) and Critical Path Method (CPM), Network representation i.e. Activity on Arrow (AOA) system and Activity on Node (AON) system. Management by Objectives (MBO), Identifying the Key Result Areas (KRAs), Total Quality Management (TQM), Error proofing (pokayoke) is the managerial process. All these are under purview of Business Intelligence. Here a briefed note has been prepared citing real-life data.
The Chow test is not robust when the errors are heteroscedastic as well as dependent. The presence of heteroscedasticity and dependency will affect level of significance as well as power of the test, especially when the sizes of the samples are small. The present paper not only resolves the problem of simultaneous existence of heteroscedasticity and dependency in the error terms, but also extends the existing method of comparing two regression equations to many equations in order to make comparisons of the successive coefficients to be possible, thus enabling one to detect structural changes, if any. The procedure is then illustrated through detection of structural change, by comparing the decadal growth rates of population, using State level data of India.
Alternaria blight of mustard caused by Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. and Alternaria brassicicola is one of the wide spread and destructive diseases of mustard in intermediate zone of Jammu region.All the five fungicides reduced the Alternaria blight of mustard in comparison to untreated control. The results showed that three sprayings at 15 days interval from 40 days after sowing showed minimum percent of leaf infection (14.35% in case of iprodione, followed by 18.35% in case of metalaxyl and 30.35% in case of mancozeb. Seed yield (q/ha) in iprodione sprayed plots was 9.35 q/ha followed by metalaxyl (8.65 q/ha and mancozedi.e 7.4 q/ha with maximum cost benefit ratio was 1:5.3, 1:4.2 and 1:3.8, respectively.
Stripe rust (yellow rust) caused by Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici is one of the main constraints in realizing the genetic potential of most of the cultivated varieties both in respect of yield and grain quality. The wheat growing areas of Jammu region i.e. Reasi, Udhampur and Rajouri were surveyed to ascertain the distribution of stripe rust, during Rabi seasons of 2013-2014, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016. During 2015-2016, Reasi district recorded the maximum disease severity i.e 14.2% in the range of 12.8 to 14.2 % due to higher temperature. The minimum disease severity was found in 2013-2014 in the range of 10.5 to 11.8% due to perhaps low temperature was found in the region. Low yield of wheat crop was due to lack of availability of high yielding varieties of wheat in the district and infestation of stripe rust disease in the region.
The growth of the Turkish aviation sector in recent years has occurred faster in proportion to worldwide growth. The need for qualified human resources in the aviation sector also takes place in correspondence with growth. The purpose of this study is to investigate higher education institutions which provide education in the field of Turkish aviation, in terms of quality and quantity. In the first part of the study, the aviation training standards which member countries of European Union revealed are given with a literature review. In the second part of the study, the numbers of higher education institutions in the field of aviation which are in Turkey, numbers of students and department variety are given. By using a committed questionnaire study, the content of education given in the education institutions, the foreign language level, the place of aviation courses in total ECTS credits, the number of lecturers/instructors are presented. In the result of the study, suggestions for the future are offered by presenting the current situation of higher education institutions which raise human resources to the sector of Turkish civil aviation.
The aim of the study is to know the influence of prepartum body condition score on various stages of parturition. Prepartum body condition score was carried out on 60 crossbred animals by using a 6 point scale before one week of expected date of calving. Animals were classified as low, medium and high body condition based on their body condition score. The Body condition of the dam had no significant effect on time intervals during the process of parturition. However, high body condition dams took slightly more time (175.6±10.0 min) to deliver their calves than the medium (172.1±7.1 min) and low (170.7±7.8 min) body condition animals. Prepartum body condition also had no effect on postpartum weight loss of dam and birth weight of calf.
Introduction: Meningiomas occurring outside the cerebrospinal axis can be primary at an extracranial site (accounting for 1-2% of all meningiomas), includes head and neck region, mediastinum, skin and soft tissues or secondary extending from an intracranial lesion. Material and methods: A 59 year old female presented with history of headache, left nasal epistaxis on and off and bilateral nasal obstruction. On examination a polypoidal growth was identified in the left nasal cavity, which was resected. Sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results: On Histomorphological and Immunohistochemical examination the tumor was identified as meningioma. Discussion: Meningioma are predominantly benign tumors of adults, usually attached to the dura, that arise from the meningothelial cells of the archnoid. These constituting about 13-26% of all primary intracranial tumors. However, primary extracranial meningiomas are very rare, accounting for 1-2% of all meningiomas. Extracranial as well as intracranial meningiomas are more commonly seen in females than males. Conclusion: Nasal and paranasal sinuses are a rare site for the occurrence of meningioma and are therefore a difficult rare entity to be diagnosed. Prognosis of ectopic meningioma is good if excision is complete.
A feed tryout was conducted to estimate the effects of dietary inclusion of Sargassum wightii, as a supplement to Lahore pigeons, on their growth and reproductive performance under Indian circumstances. A total of 50 pairs of 2-months old Lahore pigeons were divided into five groups (each with 10 pairs) and the pigeons in the first group were fed only with basal feed while those in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th groups were fed with the basal feed and 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg and 200 mg of Sargassum powder respectively per day. Availability of minerals and other dietary components from Sargassum powder was appreciably reflected in the body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion rate of pigeons. The maturation period was shortened from 180±12 to 160±10 days, the egg cycles were increased from 4±1to 6±2 per year, the number of eggs was increased from 8.00±2.0 to 14.0±1/pair/ year, egg interval of brood was reduced from 37±3 to 34±2 hours, the egg weight was increased from 14.44±1.2 to 15.81±1.28 g, the percentage of fertile eggs was increased from 82.7 - 82.2% to 85.3 - 89.0 %, the eggs’ hatchability was increased from 85.3 to 89.0%, the embryo death was reduced from 3.3±1. 1 to 2.8±1.2, squab mortality was reduced from 19.4±2 to 10.1±2, the weight gain of young squabs was increased from 492±12.21 to 505±12.30 g/squab and the squab production was raised from 6.0±0.3 to 7.2±0.2 pairs / year. These growth and reproductive performances of pigeons increased with increase in the dosage of Sargassum powder from 50 to 200 mg / bird / day. In pigeons fed with 150 and 200 mg of Sargassum powder/day, the reproductive potential observed in the third year was higher than that in the control pigeons in the very first year, which implied that no one component of Sargassum powder had induced reproductive stress in the experimental pigeons. This study therefore recommends that pigeon growers can give 150 or 200 mg of S. wightii powder as a feed supplement to pigeons for improving their growth and vigor.