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Current Issue

GC-MS analysis and in Silico docking analysis of extracts of Acacia torta craib

Author: 
Latha, R., Mujeera Fathima and Ganesan, S.
Abstract: 

Acacia torta Craib. has many medicinal values and its drug like ability against skin infections caused by bacteria was done. Initially, the ethanolic extract of the plant was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify the compounds present in the sample. Then, lead compounds were screened to be used for docking with iGEMDOCK. Docking was done for the lead compounds against the human penicillin binding protein to check their effectiveness in inhibiting the receptor. Ethanolic extract from powdered leaves and bark of the plant was prepared. GC-MS analysis showed there were 20 compounds present in the sample from which a total of 5 compounds were subjected to docking. Fitness scores of the ligands 1-Pentene, 1, 3-diphenyl-1-(trimethylsilyloxy;) Benzoic acid, 4-methyl-2-trimethylsilyloxy-, trimethylsilyl ester; 1, 3-Dioxolane, 2-(6-heptynyl) - and 2-heptyl 1, 3 Dioxolane with about -65 kcal/mol were more appreciable than tetramethylsilane having binding score -25kcal/mol. The ligands with appreciable fitness score can further be taken into preclinical studies to be used against pathogens involved in skin infection.

Philosophy of technology and its foundational principles

Author: 
Reena Thakur Patra
Abstract: 

This paper discusses philosophy of technology as a critical, reflective examination of the nature of technology as well as the effects and transformation of technologies upon human knowledge, activities, societies and environments (Umwelt). The aim of philosophy of technology is to understand, evaluate and criticize the ways in which technologies reflect, as well as change the human life individually, socially and politically. Technology usually means the knowledge of tools, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve thye problems. Secondly, philosophy of technology is closely related to the philosophy of science, which offers much attention to methodology and epistemology. Thirdly for Husserl, technique “is a mere art of achieving technical rules”, but for Heidegger it is merely in bringing out the meaning of technology. Finally, theories supporting technology are explained: such as common sense theory, theory of truth or theory of pragmatism, theory of epistemology, and theory of experience. Thus, the traditional values of knowledge, instruments, techniques and tools used in an ancient society epitomizes mankind from its earliest days as it was used by engineers in the modern world or when engineers aligned themselves with science in regularly applying scientific knowledge to technical practice in our everyday life.

Evaluation of biowaste, chemical fertilizers and natural fertilizers and fuels on germination of seeds

Author: 
Rubina Gilani, Archana, S., Radha, K. and Sirisha, D.
Abstract: 

Different germination experiments were carried to evaluate the germination and seedling growth by different type of synthetic fertilizers and also studied the impact of fuels on germination. The soil was treated with urea, cow dung, vermin compost, oil, petrol, charcoal wood chips and DAP. The results showed germination is enhanced in case of wood chips, vermi compost, charcoal added soil samples. The urea and oil are not favourable for germination. DAP showed favourable results to certain extent only.

Nanomedicine- the solution to modern medicine’s unsolved problems

Author: 
Niha Naveed
Abstract: 

Developments in nanomedicine are expected to provide solutions to many of modern medicine's unsolved problems. The great appeal of nanomedicine lies in its promise of using the unique properties of nanoscale materials to address some of the most challenging problems of medical diagnosis and therapy. Applications of nanotechnology for treatment, diagnosis, monitoring, and control of biological systems has recently been referred to as “nanomedicine” by the National Institutes of Health. Research into the delivery and targeting of pharmaceutical, therapeutic, and diagnostic agents is at the forefront of projects in nanomedicine. These involve the identification of precise targets related to specific clinical conditions and choice of the appropriate nanocarriers to achieve the required responses while minimizing the side effects. Mononuclear phagocytes, dendritic cells, endothelial cells, and cancers are key targets. Today, nanotechnology approaches to particle design and formulation are beginning to expand the market for many drugs and are forming the basis for a highly profitable niche within the industry. This article presents an overview of some of the applications of nanotechnology in nanomedicine.

Cluster-based energy efficient protocol for wireless sensor networks

Author: 
Chalapathi Rao, Y. and Dr. Ch. Santhi Rani
Abstract: 

The cluster-based technique is one of the good perspectives to reduce energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The lifetime of WSNs is maximized by using the uniform cluster location and balancing the network load between the clusters. This paper presents a simulation analysis of how the maximum number of retransmissions impacts the reliability of data transmission, the energy consumption of the nodes and the end-to-end communication delay in the IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee beacon-enabled cluster-tree WSNs. The simulation model is developed using Riverbed Modeler academic edition 17.5 to carry out the analysis of cluster tree WSNs. The configuration parameters of the network are obtained directly from the Time Division Cluster Scheduling (TDCS) tool. The analytical methods, simulation model and system designs will be easily configured by using IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee cluster-tree WSN. For the number of retransmission is 4 the reliability of data transmission is 99.4% and the energy consumption of node is 73.6 Joules. Prior to network deployment, for a given application the required Quality of Service (QoS) can be obtained by using the simulation model developed in this paper. The collision of the IEEE 802.15.4 parameters on the delay bound and throughput guaranteed by a guaranteed time slot (GTS) allocation can be analyzed using this model developed.

The role of indian major carps in human diet with special reference to protein

Author: 
Amit D. Jadhav
Abstract: 

The four fishes were selected for the study of protein includes Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrihinus mrigala, Cyprinus carpio from the Nathsagar region, Tal. Paithan dist. Aurangabad, from the present estimation. The experimental fishes were collected in the live condition in the local fresh water sources brought to the laboratory. The fishes of similar size were selected. Lowry’s ‘C’ method is used to calculate the protein value in muscle sample of selected fishes. The principle of Lowry’s ‘C’ method is the blue color developed by the reduction of phosphomolybdotungstic compounds in the folin's reagent. All reagent’s by the amino acids the color developed by the burette reaction of the protein with the alkaline measured in the Lowry’s method from the Lowry’s C method for estimation of protein in muscle sample is incubate the following protein contain in selected fishes. 1. Catla catla is showed protein contain in muscle 28 cal/100mg 2. Labeo rohita is showed protein contain in muscle 23 cal/100mg 3. Cirrihinus mrigala is showed protein contain in muscle 25 cal/100mg 4. Cyprinus carpio is showed protein contain in muscle 21 cal/100m

Topographical distribution of laryngeal cancer

Author: 
Rajnee Malhotra, Sumeet Angral, Ritu Raj and Deepakshi Angral
Abstract: 

INTRODUCTION: Laryngeal cancer which is about 2% of all the malignancies occupies an important position amongst all head & neck cancers, since it effects speech and language. Laryngeal carcinoma is predominantly a male disease. The exact cause of laryngeal cancer is unknown. Prognosis is inversely related to N Stage and M stage and persistence of the disease at the primary site. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate socio- demographic – characteristics, site and subsite distribution of Laryngeal cancer as well as the stage of Laryngeal cancer time of presentation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in the Deptt. Of ENT, Head and Neck Surgery, SMGS Hospital Govt. Medical College, Jammu extending over a period of one year from Nov, 2014 to Oct.2015, comprising of 50 patients. Detailed clinical history, clinical examination (including Indirect laryngoscopy and neck examination) was carried out in all the case. Other incestigations like routine investigatins, CT scan, Barrium swallow, direct laryngoscopy were also undertaken. Biopsy was taken from all the fifty patients for histopathological confirmation of diagnosis and for categorizing the type of tumour. RESULTS: CARCINOMA LARYNX occurs commonly in age group of 50-70 years,with male predominance and is more in smokers. Supraglottic carcinoma was the most common type of malignancy seen (62%), followed by glottic in 34% cases and subglottic in only 4%. Aryepiglottic was the most common subsite. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common type of lesion seen histologically.

Water quality of high population densityareas at the national university of lesotho`s main campus and neighbouring manonyane community

Author: 
Sunny Aiyuk, Tsaletseng Siimane and Relebohile Hlabana
Abstract: 

Given the importance of potable and safe water supplies for human consumption and, especially, given the vulnerability of such supplies where there exist high population densities, this study,from September 2014 to April 2015, assessed the water supplies at the National University of Lesotho and environs, for their potability.Water samples were obtained from different sources on campus, including stand pipes (taps) and tanks across the campus. Samples were also collected from sources that included springs, open wells and boreholes in the neigbouringManonyane community. These samples were analysed for Coliform and E. coli, together with physico-chemical parameters; pH, total dissolved solids (TDS) and residual chlorine. A structured questionnaire was also designed and administered, to get people's views concerning their perception of and experiences with the water sources.The water was generally of acceptable quality. TDS concentrations satisfied the WHO standards (below 1000 mg/l), being of excellent quality (<300 mg/l). Residual chlorine was generally below detection limit, pointing to a probable contamination linked to the health problems users reported. Fecal coliforms and E. coli were generally very low, except for one source. A mixed perception of the qualities of the water sources was obtained, but, generally, 60% rated the water qualities as satisfactory, good and very good. Users also reported experiences that compromised their health in one way or the other, due to continuous use of the water sources. Following the study, interventions were made in the community to address the problems identified. These ranged from community education to printing and distributing flyers on health education.

Fermentation of tigernut by lactic acid bacteria and tigernut-milk drink fermentation by lactic acid bacteria as a potential probiotic product

Author: 
Maduka, N., Ire, F. S. and Njoku, H. O.
Abstract: 

In recent times several researches have been focusing on non-dairy products as alternative to dairy products for the development of potential probiotic products. Different level of successes have been achieved in that regard. Fermentation of sterilized tigernut by 3 Log10CFU/g lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from ogi resulted in higher LAB count (5.17-7.34 Log10CFU/g) than using unsterilized tigernut (4.76-5.41 Log10CFU/g). However, there was slight difference in LAB count between unsterilized and sterilized tigernut fermented by larger LAB inoculum (6 Log10CFU/g). The LAB isolates identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus brevis were used as mixed culture in three different combinations A, B and C to ferment tigernut-milk drink for 72hr at 45 oC. During the fermentation period (0-72hr), the pH of tigernut-milk drink Treatment A, B, C and D being the uninoculated reduced from6.40-4.36, 6.05-4.10, 6.0-4.04 and 6.34-5.40, respectively. The total culturable lactic acid bacterial count increased from 2.73-5.60 Log10CFU/ml, 2.72–5.45Log10CFU/ml,2.75-5.96 Log10CFU/ml in tigernut-milk drink Treatment A, B and C, respectively between 0-60 hr. Between 60-72 hr, reduction in culturable lactic acid bacteria occurred in tigernut-milk drink treatment A, B and C except treatment D. No culturable LAB were isolated between 0-24 hr in Treatment D.Between 36-72hr,culturable LAB count in Treatment D increased from 2.34-3.81Log10CFU/ml. Between 0-72 hr, TTA increased from 0.09-0.79 %, 0.09-0.73%,0.10-0.79 % and 0.09-0.16 % in tigernut drink Treatment A, B, C and the uninoculated, respectively. Within the same period, percentage lactic acid produced increased from 0.11-0.95 %, 0.12-0.87 %, 0.11-0.85% and 0.11-0.19 % in tigernut-milk drink Treatment A, B, C and D, respectively. The increase in culturable LAB count in all the tigernut-milk drink treatments makes it a suitable vehicle for delivering probiotic LAB.

New topologies of kalman filters for dynamic power system estimation

Author: 
Arpit Khandelwal, Akash Saxena and Ankush Tandon
Abstract: 

Power system state estimation requires error less data to estimate the exact states of the power system. The Estimation process is done by Energy Management System (EMS) at the control centre with the help of estimated data. In practical conditions, collected data contain the measurement and process errors. These errors are due to high speed measuring devices and Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) installed on different buses. Due to communication errors, different filtration techniques are required at the control centre to get the best estimated data. For nonlinear power system, new improved Kalman filter techniques are introduced in this paper. Emerging Extended Kalman Filter (E-EKF) and Emerging Unscented Kalman Filter (E-UKF) based on the exponential description function are proposed in this paper. The effectiveness of these improved techniques is compared with the conventional nonlinear filterson the basis of elapsed time and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The performance of these filters is tested on standard IEEE-30 bus test system.

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