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Synthesis of the 2-(trichloromethyl)-4(1h)-quinazolinone nucleosides

Author: 
Laila M. Break
Abstract: 

2-(Trichloromethyl)-4-(1H)-quinazolinone1. have been ribosylated by coupling with 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-

Square clinical epidemic of the distemper canine and their incidence in mongrel dogs infested with the stump vdc sa3 in the guaranda canton, bolívar province, Ecuador

Author: 
Jorge Jagger Segura Ochoa, Jaime Wilfrido Aldaz Cárdenas, Rigoberto Fimia Duarte, 4Juan Ramón García Díaz, 1Jenny Janeth Segura Ochoa, 4Rafael Armiñana García Nancy Guadalupe Aldaz Cárdenas and César Augusto Barberán Barberán
Abstract: 

The objective of the investigation consisted on determining the epidemic clinical incidence of the Distemper canine in mongrel dogs infested with the stump VDC SA3 in the Guaranda Canton, Bolívar Province, Ecuador. The investigation was developed in the Veterinary hospital "Canine and Felines" of Guaranda, during the period understood among the years 2013 at the 2015. The study embraced a total sample of 1 970 canines for the clinical diagnosis of the illness, while in the case of the mestizo dogs, 24 canines was used, of 3 at 8 months of age and 2 to 10 kg of weight live; divided in two groups of 12 animals, six male and same quantity of females. A group was conformed by healthy animals and the other one by dogs affected by Distemper. They were kept in mind inclusion approaches, exclusion and of exit. The determination of the age of the animals, the race and the clinical diagnosis of the D. caninewas carried out for the test of PCR. To each animal in the study was determined the profile hematoquímico, platelets, total proteins, glucose, urea, creatinine and uric acid. The obtained data were processed keeping in mind the pattern Box-Jenkins/ARIMA and he/she was carried out the estimate of the values of the parameters autoregressives. The descriptive statisticians of each variable were used and they were compared between healthy and sick by means of a t-Student test for independent samples. In the prosecution of the data the statistical package Statgraphics Centurion was used to see. XV.II. The affection for Distemper canine one of the main consultation reasons represented during the period 2013-2015. The illness had an endemic and seasonal behavior. The factors of risk associated to the Distemper canine were: the non-vaccination, the age, the sex, the summer, the residence in area perurban and the non-confinement of the animals. The entirety of the dogs presented hyperthermia and the anorexy was present in 11 of the affected dogs. You conclude that the clinical square in mestizo dogs infected with the stump SA3 of the VDC commits the conservation of species threatened due to its towering lethal drastically, where the incidence for Distemper canine is a problem of health in the population of canine of the Guaranda canton.

Penetration resistance of sandy loam soils in arid regions as affected by tillage systems and polyacrylamide under two different percent of fine soil particles

Author: 
Nidal H. Abu-Hamdeh, Saleh M. Ismail, Samir G. Al-Solaimani and Randa I. Hatamleh
Abstract: 

A field experiment was carried out at Agriculture Research Station of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia to study the effect of fine particles, tillage system, and polyacrylamide application rate on the soil penetration resistance during the two seasons (2015/16 – 2016/17). Experimental design was split-split plot with four replications. Main plot included two percent of fine particles, (A = 25.2 silt + clay) and (B = 38.5 silt + clay). Sub-main plots included three tillage systems; no-tillage (NT), moldboard plowing with rotor tiller (CT1), and chisel plowing with disk harrow (CT2). Sub-sub plots were three polyacrylamide (PAM) rates; 0, 10 and 20 kg ha-1. Both locations were cultivated by wheat crop for two consecutive seasons. Results revealed that tillage system affected soil penetration resistance. Penetration resistance results revealed the existence of compacted layer beneath the tilled depth in all treatments in both locations. However, its hardness in location A was higher than in location B. The CT1 treatment had the highest value of cone index; however, the penetration resistance of CT2 and NT treatments was similar. High rate of PAM application improved penetration resistance especially with CT2 tillage system.

Chemical constituents and antibacterial activities of the leaves of ehretia cymosa

Author: 
Bezabih Bagaje, Yadessa Melaku and Tegene Dessalegn
Abstract: 

Phytochemical screening result of the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Ehretia cymosa (Borginaceae) revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, terpenes and steroids. Phenolics were detected neither in the methanol nor ethyl acetate extract. The EtOAc extract after silica gel column chromatography has led to the isolation of two isomeric triterepnes identified as α-amyrin and β-amyrin. This is the first report of the isolation of α- and β-amyrin from this species. The antibacterial activities of the methanol extract were tested against four bacterial strains such as S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and P. mirabilis. The extract exhibited pronounceable activity against E. coli and S. aureus. This is significant as this plant may be used as a remedy to treat infectious diseases caused by these two pathogens such as diarrhea. Therefore, the antibacterial activity displayed by the leaves extract of E. cymosa corroborates the traditional use of this plant against bacteria. The methanol and ethyl acetate extracts displayed low percent inhibition of DPPH likely accounted to the absence of phenolics.

A systematic review on the prevalance and management of jaundice through dietary modifications

Author: 
Shelly Garg, Dr. Luxita Sharma and Dr. Puneeta Ajmera
Abstract: 

The objective of this study is to find the widespread prevalence of the disease across the world along with its causes, people who all are affected and results of this disease. Jaundice is most severe in Asian male babies along with the Native American babies; both are found to be the most affected ones with the neonatal jaundice followed by Caucasian ones which are further followed by the African ones. So, it’s necessary to know about jaundice in different age groups and what can be the preventive measures like dietary modifications and controlling other health conditions and other factors so as to avoid the disease or at least lowering the impact of the disease. Avoidance and early curing of the disease is the main motto of the research. Common symptoms of the disease include yellowing of skin and white part of the eye, colored feces, itchiness and dark colored urine. This disease shows gradual symptoms as the bilirubin level in the blood increases. It may take up to 3 days to show the symptoms. Most commonly it affects infants of age 0-3 days but its affect can be seen in people of almost all age groups. This is one of the most widespread diseases across the world and if left untreated, may result in death and hence this study is made which focuses on the prevalence, management and dietary modifications of the disease.

Mycological assessments of postharvest rot of irish potato tubers from selected market within kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

Author: 
Mohammed, S. S. D., Ndalati, A.G., Wartu, J.R., Afangide, C.S. and Aigbogun, E.I.
Abstract: 

The mycological assessments of postharvest rot of irish potato from selected market within Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria were carried out. Fifteen (15) tubers of irish potato showing symptom of rot were collected from (4) four different market, totaling sixty (60) samples all together. The selected markets were; Ungwan rimi, Malali, Chechenia and Kaduna State University (KASU) school markets. Segment of the tissue from the margins of the spoilt irish potato were cut with sterile scalpel and were placed on the prepared sabouraud dextrose agar plate (SDA) in petri-dishes and were incubated at 28±2ºC for 5days. The mycelia of fungi isolates were viewed under the microscope using 4X and 40X magnifications. Pathogenicity test were carried out on heathy tubers. The fungi identification were made using identification atlas. Fungi such as Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium sp and Mucor racemosus were isolated with different frequencies from the sampled potato. Irish potato from Ungwan rimi market had R.stolonifer 6(40.0%) F.oxysporum 4(26.7%) A.niger 2(13.3%) A.flavus 1(6.7%) Penicillium species 2(13.3%). Irish potato from Malali market had R. stolonifer 4(26.7%) F.oxysporum 3(20.0%) .A.niger 2(13.3%) A.flavus 3(20.0%) Penicillium sp 2(13.3% ) M.racemosus 2(13.3%), Irish potato from Chechenia market had R.stolonifer 6(40.0%) F.oxysporum 4(26.7%) A.niger 2(13.3%) Penicillium sp 2(13.3%) M.racemosus 1(6.7%). Irish potato from Kasu market had R.stolonifer 5(33.3%) F.oxysporum 3(20.0%) A.niger 3(20.0%) A.flavus 2(13.3%) Penicillium sp 1(6.7%) M.racemosus 1(6.7%) respectively. The results from the pathogenicity test showed that fungi induced different level of decay with R.stolonifer as the most virulent fungus followed by F .oxysporum and M.racemosus as the least virulent fungus. This study showed that many fungus have been found to cause storage rot of irish potato within selected markets of the metropolis. This pathogen leads to the enormous loss of potato tubers. In order to prevent the fungi causing rot in irish potato preventive measures such as adequate storage facilities and segregation of rotten irish potato tubers from healthy ones should be duly exercised.

Vibrio alginolyticus emerging food born pathogen

Author: 
Ravikumar, V. and Vijayakumar, R.
Abstract: 

Vibrioinfections are becoming increasingly common worldwide. Pathogenic Vibrio’s cause 3 major syndromes of clinical illness: gastroenteritis, wound infection and septicemia. Vibrio alginolyticus is a natural host estuarine and coastal waters as well as sea food and cannot be eradicated in these niches. This bacterium capable of carrying the pathogenic gene trh is a threat to public health. Epidemiologic data suggest that the majority of these infections are foodborne and associated with consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish. In addition, it is increasingly recognized as a potential threat to humans by causing food poisoning, intestinal inflammation, and wound infections. The aim of this paper is to summarize the literature on Vibrio alginolyticus responsible of enteric and other diseases, its ecology, pathogenicity and visibility with description methods for identification and give summary of preventive measurements to fight against food borne illness associated with Vibrio alginolyticus.

Estimation of radiation dose for pediatric patients undergoing x-ray examinations of the chest and abdomen

Author: 
Mahmoud Hyder, Mohammed A. Alkreem and Ahmed Abukonna
Abstract: 

Pediatric radiography is a challenging procedure from the perspective of radiation dosage. Children are approximately ten times more sensitive to radiation-induced cancer than middle-aged adults and three times more sensitive than the population average. A total of 100 patients were enrolled in this study. ESDs were evaluated for the chest posterio-anterior (PA) projection and abdomen anterio-posterior (AP) projection. For each studied examination, the patient anthropometrical data (sex, age, weight and height) and technical parameters used (kVp, mAs and FSD) were collected at the time of the examination on a self-designed data collection sheet. The ESD was assessed by indirect method, with the data on the radiation output of the X-ray tube and exposure factors (kVp, mAs and FSD). The result of the study revealed that the (mean ± SD) for ESDs were found to be (0.11 ± 0.03mGy),(0.41 ± 0.15mGy) for PA chest and abdomen consequently. The maximum ESD for abdomen (0.723 mGy) observed at maximum kVp (62 kVp) which emphases the significant correlation between kVp and ESD, no correlation was found between patient age or weight and ESD. The study is considered as an attempt to evaluate the ESDs received by digital radiographic x-ray machine for children aged between 1 - 8 years old, taking into considerations number of other variables. The mean ESD values obtained are found to be within the standard reference. The data obtained may add to the available information in national records for general use. It may provide guidance on where efforts on dose reduction will need to be directed to fulfill the requirements of the optimization process and serve as a reference for future researches.

Effect of carbon nanotube and nanofiber on microcement mortar properties

Author: 
Yazdani, N. Ph.D., Narasimha Alimeneti, P. E. and Tanvir Manzur, Ph.D.
Abstract: 

Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and nanofibers (CNF) are among the toughest and stiffest materials discovered to date. Their use in cement composites is not wide spread yet and is of great interest. In this study, some important physical and mechanical properties of microcement mortar with CNT and CNF addition are investigated. Various water cement (w/c) ratios and CNT/CNF dosage rates were explored. The compressive and flexural strengths increased significantly at early ages with CNT/CNF addition However, decrease in strengths was observed for a number of mixes at 28 days age. CNT dosage rate of 0.05% at 0.4 w/c ratio yielded the best combination for mortar strength. Nanoparticles increased flowability, decreased initial setting time and had no effect on bleeding and shrinkage rates. CNT addition resulted in more consistent effects on mortar properties than CNF addition. Additional investigation is needed to fully understand the potential usage of these nanoparticles in cement composites and remove some of the relevant inconsistencies.

Accurate solutions of first order nonlinear initial value problems for ordinary differential equations Withtherunge - Kutta - Fehlberg Method

Author: 
Teka Bogale and Aknaw Hailemariam
Abstract: 

This paper applies the fifth order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method for solving nonlinear first orderinitial value problem. The proposed method is quite efficient and practically well suited for solving these problems. In order to verify the accuracy, we compare numerical solutions with the exact solutions. The numerical solutions are in good agreement with the exact solutions. The stability analysis of the method has been investigated. Three model examples are given to demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of the methods. The proposed method also compared with some previously existing literatures and shows betterment results.

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