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Determination of the hygienic and physico-chemical quality of Raw milk produced by small and medium producers of The north-east region of carchi-ecuador

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Author: 
Martínez-Villarreal, David, Morales-Arciniega, Samantha, Núñez-Naranjo, Luis, Santander-Parra, Silvana, De la Cueva-Jácome, Francisco and Puga-Torres, Byron
Abstract: 

Milk production is a very important activity in several regions of Ecuador, and the province of Carchi is no exception, whose production is close to 300 thousand liters per day. This production comes from big, medium, and small producers, and these two lastsare a great significance in the economy of the region, and with less technification; reason why it is of importance to control that the physical-chemical and hygienic characteristics of its milk are in accordance with establishes the local regulation (Ecuadorian Technical Standard –NTE- INEN 9), so that the processed product for consumption is of high quality. The objective of this study was determinate the hygienic and physical-chemical quality of raw milk produced by small and medium-sized cattle farmers in the north-east region of Province of Carchi, Ecuador; for this purpose 694 samples of raw milk collected from tanks in which the producers collect the milk produced in one day were analyzed. The physical-chemical parameters (percentage of FAT, protein -TP, lactose -LAC, total solids –TS and non-fat solids -NFS) of raw milk were determined by infrared spectrophotometry and hygienic quality (somatic cell count -SCC and total bacterial count -TBC) were determined using flow cytometry. The producers were grouped into small (less than 5 hectares) and medium-sized cattle farmers (from 5 to 20 hectares) according to the number of hectares that they dedicate to the dairy production, 694 cattle ranchers were determined as the sampling units that produce raw milk and that were included in this study. The parameters, on mean, obtained from the raw milk analysis of the two groups investigated were: FAT = 3,584%; TP = 3.218%, LAC = 4.599%, TS = 12.121%, NFS = 8.560%, SCC = 562016 somatic cells/ml, TBC = 3302000 bacteria/ml. These results, when compared to the parameters established by the Technical Standard NTE: INEN 9 (Raw Milk: Requirements), determined that the measures of FAT, PT, ST, SNG comply with established in said standard, but the SCS and TBC parameters are above the technical standard. The present research shows that the physical and chemical characteristics of raw milk produced by small and medium producers in the northeastern region of the province of Carchi are within the parameters of quality that govern in Ecuador, not so its sanitary quality, so it is important that programs aimed at improving this important aspect being proposed.

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               Prof. Dr. ISMAIL YILDIRIM

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