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Phylogeny and characteristics of unculturable bacteria with metagenomics approach

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Author: 
Bhupendra Prasad and Jitendra Malviya
Abstract: 

Metagenomics is the genomic analysis of bacteria by direct extraction and cloning of DNA from an assemblage of bacteria. Explanation of Metagenomics stemmed from the ineluctable evidence that as-yet-uncultured bacteria represent the vast majority of organisms in most environments on earth. The supporting analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences would have been direct amplified from the environment that can change the discovery of microbial life. In microbiology, bacteria needed to be cultured in a lab for researchers to understand the organism; those that would not grow in lab conditions are considered Unculturable. The organism was directly taken from environment and has been studied after uncultured organisms. From these Unculturable organisms, the collection and analysis of their genetic material is the study of metagenomics. Two approaches, function-driven and sequence-driven are used to obtain a metagenomic library. The symbiosis relationship of bacteria showed their function which approach while rRNA is primarily used for sequence for functional analysis. Many biochemical techniques are currently used in metagenomics including: stable isotope probing, suppressive subtractive hybridization, differential expression analysis, PCR for amplification, RT-PCR, and microarrays. These experiments have led to many novel discoveries of proteins, organisms, and phylogeny studies. Continued research in the metagenomic field will lead to improved bioinformatics which will in turn allow us to know more about our history and our ever changing environment. Metagenomic sequence used for application part for information and it will be facilitated to design a better strategies for culture to link the genomic analysis with pure culture studies.

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