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Republic of macedonia, most favorable country for the production of oriental Tobacco

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Author: 
Silvana Pasovska and Stevco Dimeski
Abstract: 

Macedonia is a country where traditionally the best oriental tobaccos are grown, despite the known regions in Turkey, Izmir and the area of the Sea of Marmara, where there are environmental conditions for producing quality oriental tobaccos. Republic of Macedonia is a small continental country on the Balkans and it is a "golden triangle" in the production of oriental tobaccos and is a longtime relatively stable traditional producer compared to the countries that surround it and that are producers of this type of tobacco. After the rapid structural change in cigarette consumption, by accepting the American blend, 90% of the production of tobacco in the Republic of Macedonia is oriented towards external markets. The basic formula of the American blend of cigarettes is based on the formula of the cigarette company “R. J. Reynolds”, first introduced in 1913 with the percentage participation of mixtures: 50% “Virginia light”, 25% “Burley”, 20% oriental tobaccos and 5% other types of tobacco. Today, this formula is the gravitational point around which the tobacco mixtures for the production of the American blend of cigarettes are made, depending on the taste of smoking of the customers from different countries. In that respect, the tobaccos in the R. Macedonia, according to the producers - processors and cigarette companies, are not of a second quality, but rather independent and unique in quality and flavor. During the transition period, after the independence of the Republic Macedonia, the production of oriental tobaccos oscillates compared to the previous period, and then become more stable in production of quantity. The introduction of stimulations in 2005 contributed to stabilize the production. After this period, the average production ranges from 25,000 - 30,000 tons of tobacco and approaches to the production of the pre-transition period. In the period from 1991-2005, in our country in the production of oriental tobacco were present quite oriental varieties of tobacco from the type of "Prilep". After this period the situation is changing, and today the leading type is "P-66", which stabilizes production and improves quality. We can say that the quality of the tobacco of the R. Macedonia compared to the tobacco of the neighboring Greece is at the same level, if not better. Soil and climatic conditions rarely allow larger oscillations in the production of tobacco, compared to the countries that surround us. This feature of relative stability of tobacco production, indicates that, the opportunities to replace tobacco with other alternative crops are marginal and without perspective. Poor and dry soils are best suited for tobacco culture in many aspects: social, economic and most profitable in respect of any other culture. Experts, therefore, support tobacco production. Periodic oscillations, in tobacco production, depend on the weather conditions that affect the quality and quantity. Purchased tobacco from producers (farmers) ranges from 2,5 - 3 Euros/ kg without stimulation that is 1 euro / kg. Tobacco production in 2011 included 33,234 households, 29,000 in 2012, and the harvest of 2013 included 42,386 households. Production in these years was: 15 677 hectares in 2011, 14 609 hectares in 2012 or 19 806 hectares in 2013. Average production per hectare is 1,550 kg and there are a lot of producers who produce 2,000 kg / hectare. Tobacco production is quite mechanical in the phases of planting and threading. These agro-technical measures largely compensate the reduced source of labor force that among the farmers is fairly reduced due to the demographic situation.

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

        

            Prof. Dr. ISMAIL YILDIRIM

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