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December 2017

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Corporate social responsibility and financial performance of quoted deposit money banks in Nigeria
Amahalu Nestor Ndubuisi, Ezechukwu Beatrice, O. and Obi Juliet Chinyere

This study aims at ascertaining how corporate social responsibility (CSR) relates with financial performance of quoted deposit money banks in Nigeria from 2010-2016. Specifically, this study aims to ascertain the extent of relationship that exists between donation and return on assets; determine the extent of relationship that exists between donation and return on equity and to evaluate the extent of relationship between donations and market-to-book value of quoted deposit money banks in...

A north-south technology transfer methodology
Yacoub Idriss Halawlaw, Galmaï Orozi, Kwendje, C. and Njipouakouyou Samuel

North-South technology transfer in the crushing majority of the cases, are designed in northern laboratories and applied as they are to people of the developing countries. These approaches imagined out of context showed their limits. In spite of huge material and human means, these approaches did not yield economic development and social transformation in the societies of the South. In this paper we analyze technology transfers and show why these procedures cannot lead to successful...

Definition of cultural heritage properties and their valuesby the past
Jafar Rouhi

Understanding the history is possible by knowing the human thoughts. One possible way to know the human thoughts is the objective manifestation of the subjective structures. In other words, the objective manifestation of the human mind is specifically evident in the values of cultural heritage, and more specifically is demonstrated in the historical monuments and sites. However, here arise a fundamental question regarding what is the dependency between man and past while we are facing the...

Types of cocktail and Mocktails, sensory evaluation, and its packaging
Chaudhary Moni and Mishra Sunita

Mocktails are mixed drinks and nonalcoholic beverages that require blending of one or more nonalcoholic products, or blending of numerous mixed beverages like juices, ice tea, as it contains fruit juices, fruits gives us plenty fibre, vitamin, mineral, including folate, potassium, vitamin c. The study was carried out to determine the different types of cocktail and mocktails and shilf life (packaging) of tomato juice and cocktail juice produced from oranges, tomatoes, carrots, lemon and...

Biotyping and prevalence of respiratory affections in goats
Aulwar, B. S., Gangane, G.R., Birajdar, B.W., Moregaonkar, S.D., Suryawanshi, P. R. and Bhonsle, A.V.

The aim of this study was to investigate the respiratory affections in goats with special reference to bacterial infections through bacteriological techniques and MALDI-TOF. A total of 192 swabs from trachea and inner core of lung were collected aseptically. The generated data was basically pertaining to 60 died goats and 154 slaughtered goats which were screened during present study by bacteriological techniques and MALDI-TOF. After thorough post mortem examination of screened carcasses of...

Physico-chemical and adulteration analysis of buffalo milk at various stages of supply chain in and around Parbhani City
Pudale, P.S. and Deshmukh, V. V.

The percentage of whiteness of milk was higher between range of 75 to 85.4 percent whereas, the yellowish white ranges from 4.1 to 25 percent. The specific gravity of milk at farm was 1.0297 ± 0.002, during transportation 1.0269 ± 0.002 and 1.0255 ± 0.002 at retail shop. The pH of milk was found to be 6.72 ± 0.014 at farm, 6.76 ± 0.015 during transportation and 6.70 ± 0.015 at retail shop. The titratable acidity of milk was observed 0.13 percent at farm, 0.12 percent during transportation...

Assessment of greenhouse gases from organic fraction of municipal solid waste of Kurnool city, Andhra Pradesh, India
Ramachar, T., Gupta, N.V.S., Ganesh, A. and Ujwala, G.

The major Greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide which emit from the decomposition of biodegradable organic matter by anaerobic bacteria. The emission of these gases from decomposable organic fraction of municipal solid waste also contributes significantly to the global warming. The contribution of methane to global warming is 21 times higher than carbon dioxide. In developing countries the MSW has high decomposable organic matter. This would be the potential source...

Identification of new TYLCV resistant sources of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
Jadhav, B. P., Patil M. B., Patil S. Y., Halakude, I. S. and Rajput, J. C.

Tomato yellow leaf curl (TYLCV) is most the dreaded disease which causes yield losses up to 90 per cent in tropical and subtropical countries. The disease is transmitted by white flies (Bemisiatabaci). It is imperative to identify TYLCV resistant sources which could be incorporated in tomato improvement programme. The research work was carried out which resulted in identification of new resistant sources. Three highly resistant (null) and five highly resistant lines were reported out of 30...

Physicochemical and organoleptic properties of cookies made using tender coconut pulp as a fat replacer
Dr. Simmi Jain and Pooja Sree, K.M.

The present study was conducted to understand the effect of substitution of butter with tender coconut pulp in cookies in terms of its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Three variations of the cookies were formulated; (a) Control (100% butter), (b) Variation 1 (25% tender coconut pulp + 75% butter), (c) Variation 2 (50% tender coconut pulp + 50% butter). The physicochemical analysis of the cookies showed a significant reduction in the fat content and a significant increase in the...

Investigation and typology of vegetation in the west coast lands of Maharloo lake at Fars province, Iran
Reza E. Owfi and Nosratollah Safaian

Maharloo Lake covers an area of 257 square kilometers that located on 18 kilometers East of Shiraz province. This research aimed to investigate the vegetation of lake's western border lands. To gatherthe necessary information, the vegetation types were made on the basis of geomorphic and then within each vegetation type, sampling the vegetation was done completely and randomly using transects method and a transect of 30 meters and three transects per each type were performed. Finally, after...

Kartagener syndrome, granulomatous cheilitisand extra oral manifestation of actinomycosis in a child patient: Case Report
YasminNawal De FreitasAshoury, Ruth Andia-Merlin, 3Carlos Eduardo Allegretti, 4,*Camila Correia dos Santos, Rodolfo Georgevich Neto and Elcio Magdalena Giovani

Kartagener's syndrome and granulomatous cheilitis are rare entities and are rarely discussed in the literature, and when still associated with the facial manifestation of actinomycosis, triggers severe aggravations in the patient's systemic and oral conditions. The objective of this study is to highlight the importance of multiprofessional work for an early diagnosis, as well as to emphasize the need for knowledge of the patient's systemic and oral health for a safe and quality care. It is...

Nasal granuloma in bovine
Mithilesh Kumar and Premlata Kumari

Nasal granuloma is tumorous growth inside the nasal passage. It is generally observed only one passage. Nasal growth is not found in buffalo. In India the parasite develop in cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep and horses in the vein of nasal mucosa (Soulsby 1982). Millet like eruptions and congestion of nasal mucosa in buffalo shows a more definite host than cattle (Rajamohan & Peter 1975). The buffalo carry the infection without significant symptoms and lesions....

Identification of pro-vitamin a maize genotypes for Nepal
Keshab Babu Koirala, Tirtha Raj Rijal, Keshab Prasad Pokhrel, Bikash Ghimire and Gopal Prasad Panthi

Areas where maize is consumed as staple, consumers are suffering from vitamin A deficiency. To tackle this problem, pro-vitamin A maize genotypes both open-pollinated and hybrid types received from International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre were evaluated at National Maize Research Program, Rampur; Horticulture Research Station, Dailekh; Agriculture Research Station, Surkhet and in farmers’ field at Sandhikharka in Arghakhanchi district during summer season of 2014/015. Experiments...

Enhancement of normal flour by using dietry fibre & their standerization
Shikha Singh and Neetu Singh

In era of increasing life style diseases among people foods are required for better nutritional management. While considering the nutritional management staple foods are important role in day to day life. Now a days fortified flour and blended flour are available in the market. But demand of supply needed more search to fulfil the requirement of people the present study is a noble steps to meet out this problem and also provide better nutritional management or for curing health hazards....

Behavioural problems among children with learning disabilities
Aasimeh Rehman and Dr. Humera Shafi

The present research paper highlights the studies that centers on the learning disabilities and behavior problems among children. The research studies have been analyzed to note relationship between learning disabilities and behavior problems among children. Number of research quoted in this review paper highlight externalizing behavioral problems and internalizing behavioral problem of children with learning disabilities. The studies reviewed in this paper form...

Food security in kerala- need for a new direction and policy
Dr. Sheeba, V. T.

Food security is a challenge faced by all developing nations today. It is accepted internationally as the index of welfare and prosperity. For a Nation like India which also faces the problem of population explosion, the maintenance of a balance between food production and population becomes a Herculean task. In states like Kerala, there is the multiple challenge of shrinking paddy fields, increasing density of population and shift to other occupations and...

Determination of heavy metals concentration in irrigated soils in Gombe state, Nigeria
Babangida Hammani, Fatima Algunaid Hassan, Khalid Abdallah Mohamed Hassan and Umar Ibrahim

Heavy metals are contaminants with the ability to accumulate in soil. Certain contaminants are also bioavailable and depend on many characteristics of the soil and of the zones. Study on heavy metals concentration in irrigated soil was conducted in Gombe State, Nigeria with the aim of evaluating the concentration of heavy metal in irrigated soil in the three zones that makes up the state namely; Northern zone, Central zone and Southern zone. From each zone, four...

Comparative analysis of exon 11 mutations of brca1 gene in regard to circulating tumor dna (ctdna) & genomic dna in a cohort of breast cancer patients in Pakistan
Kalsoom Ahtzaz, Mehak Ali and Dr. Adnan Arshad

The aim of our study was to identify BRCA1 mutations in Pakistani population and direct comparison between circulating tumor DNA and genomic DNA of breast cancer patients. The complete screening of genomic DNA and ctDNA of 22 Patients for Exon 11 of 3426bp was costly and time consuming. Thus our method of choice was High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis (HRM). We analyzed and detected founder mutation (185delAG) in Exon 2 of BRCA 1 gene in genomic DNA of 30...

Social representations of motherhood constructed by lesbian mothers
Firley Poliana da Silva Lúcio, Ednaldo Cavalcante de Araújo, Eliane Maria Ribeiro de Vasconcelos Betânia da Mata Ribeiro Gomes and Maria Alves de Toledo Bruns

Objective: to understand the social representations created by lesbians regarding motherhood in the current heteronormative social context. Method: This is an exploratory descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The sample consisted of eight lesbian mothers between 28 and 46 years of age. The Snowball technique was used for the selection process. The analysis was performed with the help of IRAMUTEQ...

Effect of hip muscles stretching in low back pain patients with lumbar flexion dysfunction
Tithi Mohanty, Monalisa Pattnaik and Dr. Patitapaban Mohanty

Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to determine whether improving overerall hip joint flexibility by stretching the tight muscles of hip in patients with Flexion dysfunction show any improvement in their lumbar flexion ROM and functional ability. Methodology: 30 subjects with low back pain due to flexion dysfunction were randomly divided into 2 groups. GROUP 1 - received Hold Relax PNF stretching for hip flexors, hamstrings and piriformis muscles along...

Theory of 3-folds 5-dimensional universe
Yogesh Vishwanath Chavan

In this Theory, the equivalence between “Mass” and “One Dimensional Imaginary Straight Line” is proved by embedding Mass on Imaginary Line. Also, based upon current experimental data, empirical formula is derived which gives upper limit on energy scale up to TeV with minimum size equal to value of charge (Q). These both concepts with The Standard Model of Particle Physics are used to arrange particles (Fermions and Bosons) in 3 Folds way...

Retrospective study on childhood obesity prevalence and its prevention
Chauhan Tinky and Mishra Sunita

Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Body Mass Index is a simple index of weight / height that is commonly used to classify overweight and obesity in adults. Childhood obesity is increasingly being with the changing lifestyle of families with increased purchasing power, increasing hours of inactivity due to television, video games and computer, which are replacing outdoor games and other social activities . The WHO has describes...

Immunohistochemical evaluation of ki-67 in papillary thyroid carcinoma among sudanese patients
Sahwa Omer Gorashi khogaly and Esam Mohamed Abdelrahim Suliman

Background: Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (PTC) constitutes the most common form of thyroid cancer and the most common endocrine malignant tumor. It is often difficult to differentiate PTC from benign papillary hyperplasia of the thyroid gland based on their morphology. Cell proliferative activity is one of the important factors for assessing the biological behavior of carcinoma. At present, the most useful marker to evaluate cell proliferative activity is Ki-67, which is...

Ternary Hemirings and ternary Semirings: Definitions and examples
Gudikandula. Srinivasa Rao, Madhusudhana Rao, D. and Srinivasa Rao, G.

In this paper we mainly introduce the some special notions of ternary semi rings and we gave examples of definitions and we prove that a set T containing two distinct elements 0 and 1 and on which operations + and [ ] are defined is a commutative ternary semi ring if and only if the following conditions are satisfied for all a, b, c, d, e, f ∈ T: (1) a + 0 = 0 + a = a; (2) a11 = a; (3) 00a =0; (4) [(aeg+ b)+ c]df = dfb+ [ae(gdf) + cdf].

Free radical scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity and Phenolic content of gardenia Latifolia
Tamilselvi, K. and Anand, S. P. and Doss, A.

Gardenia latifolia was extracted with ethanol and aqueous using cold-extraction. To evaluate the antiradical and antioxidant abilities of the extracts, four in vitro test systems were employed, i.e., dpph (1,1,diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl), nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide and reducing power assay. The extracts exhibited outstanding antioxidant activities that were superior to that of standard. The ethanol extract exhibited the most significant antioxidant activities, and cold-extraction under...

Nutritional analysis and preservation of tender green coconut water
Sharma Garima, Mishra Sunita and Daniel Madhvi

Water is essential for life. There are a variety of trace elements present in virtually all potable water, some of which play a role in metabolism. For example, sodium, potassium and chloride are common chemicals found in small quantities in most waters. Tender green coconut water is a pure and nutritious beverage in the natural state. Green Coconut water refers to the liquid endosperm of a tender coconut at an age of approximately 9 months from time of pollination, the period before the...

Invasive alien species in district Kathua (North-West Himalayas), Jammu and Kashmir, India
Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

A case of Jammu and Kashmir is one of threats to the biodiversity of region through the invasion of invasive alien species. Species which are either introduced or spread outside of their natural habitat may out-compete native species and sometimes become invasive and noxious weeds. Such species are designated as Invasive Alien Species (IAS). The study aimed to document the invasive alien species prevalent in the area along with their harmful effects. Most of the invasive alien weeds have...

Management of a big Gartner’s cyst
Dr. Krishnamma, B. S. and Dr. Suryaprabha, V.

Gartner cyst is usually found during routine gynaecological examination. Very rarely, they may increase in size because of mucus production. We diagnosed a case of a large Gartner cyst of approximately 10cm in a 35-year-old woman, multiparous, who came to outpatient department of Gynaecology, with a complaint of intermittent dragging pain in right lower abdomen. Apart from routine investigations, Ultrasonography abdomen and pelvis done I. Uterus normal size, Left adnexae showed single cyst...

Effect of socio demographic factors on public speaking fear of the college students
Ramaprabou, V.

The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of socio demographic factors on public speaking fear. For this 74 college students studying in various colleges of Puducherry were approached at random using convenient sampling method. Public Speaking Fear questionnaire developed and standardized by Mc Croskey (1970) was used for data collection. Analysis was done by using independent sample t test and one-way ANOVA. Findings of the study revealed that the socio demographic...

Attitude of female adolescents towards HIV/AIDS
Dr. Jyotsnarani Panda

Aims/purpose: The present study was an attempt to assess their need of knowledge based on counseling among 13 to 17 year old adolescents.
Methodology of study: The total sample for the present study included 400 adolescents i e 200 from different girl’s high schools and 200 from women’s colleges which are the most of HIV prevalence blocks of the Ganjam district of Odisha state. By using exploratory and the descriptive study design, the researcher attempts to describe female adolescents...

Human resource strategies with combined BSC approach and fuzzy logic in small and mediocre industries of Khuzestan province
Kamran Yeganegi, Ziba Tajdani and Mohsen Nasab, M. H.

In this paper, human resources strategies are examined with the combination of BSC and fuzzy logic in the small and mediocre industries of Khuzestan province. The statistical population in the qualitative section includes experts (managers with 10 years’ experience of management) and a small number of managers and deputies of small and medium sized companies in Ahwaz. By Using Cochran's formula, 384 people were selected as a statistical sample and they were selected randomly. The data...

Role of remote sensing and geophysics to determine potential sites for boreholes in the crystalline basement of the wadi fira region: Case study of Iriba
MASSING Oursingbé, ADOUM Issak, ABDERAMANE Hamit and DINGAMNODJI Ndingané

The extraction of groundwater from the basement is one of the best methods of water supply to populations. Actually, the aquifers of the cracked basement are excellent water reservoirs in the area of Iriba. The objective of this study is to determine the potential sites of boreholes, which are likely to provide appropriate discharges in the area of Iriba. The combination of remote sensing and geophysical methods constitutes the methodology used in this study. In this vein, we designed a map...

L’artisanat a yopougon nord-est: entre formes d’usageset impact spatial
Bamba Mamadou, DIABAGATE Abou, DAGNOGO Foussata, SORO Ferelaha Fatoumata and GOGBE Téré

The most populous municipality of the District of Abidjan with about 1071000 inhabitants, Yopougon is also the largest of the Ivorian metropolis. However, in this sprawling and cosmopolitan commune, the urban space is in the grip of human pressure. In the neighborhoods of Yopougon Northeast, the intimacy of the urban space reveals forms of uses or anarchic occupations. These are primarily artisanal settlements in inappropriate and uneconomic locations. Urban...

Effect of certain herbs on fecal excretion of anaerobic bacteria in layer chicken
Kalaiselvi, G., Sakthi Priya, M., Puniyamurthy, N. and Sukumar, K.

A total of 225, 16 weeks old layer birds randomly divided into 4 groups with three replicates each. Birds were assigned to the basal diet (control). All birds employed in the experiment were fed according to applicable recommendations of the National Research Council Feed and water bacterial count assessed before and after completion of trial. Fresh purified herbal extracts of turmeric, fenugreek and ginger were subjected to sterility and in vitro antibacterial effect test. The herbal...

Nutritional value of vegetable sauces and its utilization in receipe
Singh Ritika and Singh Neetu

Vegetables are considered essential for well-balanced diets since they supply vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals. Each vegetable group contains a unique combination and amount of these phytonutriceuticals, which distinguishes them from other groups and vegetables whith in their own group. In the daily diet vegetables have been strongly associated with improvement of gastrointestinal health, good vision, and reduced risk of heart disease, stroke, chronic diseases such as...

Rethinking the issues of digital divide among disabled people
Nur Ajrun Khalid and Rohana Yusof

This article aims to clarify the definition of digital divide phenomenon occurred among disabled people. In order to understand this situation, it is need to clarify the level of digital divide, what factor and challenges occurred for disabled people to get access into Information Communication Technology (ICT) and the internet.

Mucus retention phenomenon in HIV/AIDS patients: Case Reports
Giovani, E. M., Santos, C. C., Georgevich-Neto, R., Andia-Merlin, R. Y., Noro-Filho, G. A., Mesquita, A. M. M. and Villalba, H.

The term mucocele is used, clinically, as a generic term to refer to phenomena of retention and extravasation of mucus, and they can only be differentiated after the histopathological analysis. It affects the lower lip more frequently, mainly due to the fact that this site is more prone to injury, and it is nowadays an increase in cases of mucoceles in HIV/Aids patients, with a predictability in the use of highly potent antiretroviral therapy and marked increase in xerostomia in its degrees...

Impact of the institution of a protocolof hygiene bucal under pneumonia ratesin a hospital of palliative care
Giacometti, S.H.N., Kallas, M.S., Toigo, M.C., Salman, S., Georgevich-Neto, R., Santos, C.C., Villalba, H. and Giovani, E.M.

The maintenance of quality of life, implies oral hygiene and oral health care; but this type of attention for long-term patients is still low, mainly because they are no longer able to perform hygiene due to lack of motor control or due to the limitations of the disease, depending, therefore, on the help of third parties. This critical issue becomes an important risk factor for ventilator-associated pneumonia due to the reduction of natural upper airway defenses, indicating the importance of...

The numerical solution of the boundary layer flow over a nonlinearly stretching sheet under the influence of the porous medium and magnetic field
Shiva Prasad Rayapole and Anand Rao Jakkula

The present paper studies on the laminar two-dimensional boundary layer flow and heat transfer of an incompressible viscous fluid with thermal radiation in existence of Porous medium and Magnetic field over a nonlinearly stretching sheet is investigated numerically. The governing boundary layer equations are reduced into ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformation. The malformed equations are solved numerically using an embedded finite difference scheme known as the Keller...

Effect of polymethyl methacrylate (pmma) encapsulated nano sized calcium carbonate on the transport properties of toluene into natural rubber based composites
Dr. Mausumi Saha

In this work the nano sized calcium carbonate was chemically treated with a synthetic polymer, i.e., polymethyl methacrylate by an in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate monomer in the presence of filler dispersion in water. The transport properties of a solvent (toluene) through these present composites at different loadings have been investigated at various temperatures. The diffusion coefficient (D), permeation coefficient (P) and sorption coefficient (S) obtained for composites in...

Effect of couple stress in peristaltic transport of blood flow by homotopy analysis method
Asha, S.K. and Sunita, G.

The present study deals towards investigating the physiological flow of blood in micro-circulatory system. The effects of various parameters on velocity, pressure rise and frictional force of blood have been computed when the Reynolds number is small and wavelength is large by using Homotopy Analysis Method. The computational results are presented in graphical form. The results are found to be good with those of Shapiro et.al [21] that carried out without consideration of couple stress...

Prevalence and awareness of cumulative trauma disorders in architecture students
Hetal Soni and Dr. Sachin Gawande

Cumulative trauma disorders are a group of disorders affecting the upper limb joints, back and neck. These disorders mainly take place due to activities done repeatedly and forcefully for a longer duration of time, with increasing amount of stress that gets built up in the tissues and other muscular structures. Students studying architecture are exposed to conditions which involve doing these activities. This study was done focussing on finding out the prevalence and awareness of cumulative...

Isolation and identification of secondary metabolites producing bacteria isolated from soil termites
Vijayalakshmi Selvakumar, Sivaranjani, S., Sujatha, S., Revathy M. and Panneerselvam, A.

In the present investigation Bacillus sp. were isolated from subterranean termites gut. Bacillus sp. was identified based on the morphological and molecular characterization. 16SrRNA of Bacillus sp. sequenced and submitted to Gen Bank. Antibacterial activity of Bacillus sp. was screened. It inhibits the growth of S.typhi, E.coli and S.aureus. The bioactive compounds were analyzed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and thin layer chromatography. The highest peak was observed between 240 to 280 nm. In...

Synthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial activities of copper (ii) mixed ligand complexes
Kannan, A., Kandavelu, V. and Saravanan, D.

A series of six mono nuclear Schiff-base complexes, namely [Cu(L1)(NO3)]NO3 (1), [Cu(L2)(NO3)]NO3 (2),[Cu(L1)phen](NO3)2(3),[Cu(L1)bpy](NO3)2 (4),[Cu(L1)pybiH](NO3)2(5) and [Cu(L1)dpk](NO3)2(6) where L1 and L2 is a tridentate (N,N,N) Schiff-base ligand L1 = (N,N-dimethyl-N`-[phenyl(pyridin-2-yl)methylene]ethane-1,2-diamine), L2 = (N-[phenyl(pyridine-2-yl)methylene) (pyridin-2-yl]methanamine), phen = 1, 10-phenanthroline, bpy = 2, 2'-bipyridinyl, pybim = 2-pyridin-2-yl-1H-benzoimidazole and...

Experimental analysis and then optimization of machining inconel 600 alloy in spark machining
Suresh Balaji, R., Akilan, B. and Abishek Agarwal, S.

Spark machining is one of the non traditional machining processes which is based on thermo electric energy between the specimen and then an electrode. In this work it scrutinizes the machining characteristics of Inconel 600 using Spark machining method with Brass & Copper electrode. Taguchi’s method has been adopted as a strategy of experiments technique for tentative investigation. Certain experiments have been carried out to study the effect of each parameter on the machining...

The prevalence and determinant factors of diarrheal morbidity among under five children in Selam Kebele, South West Ethiopia
Shukure Uomer and Yilkal Messelu

Back ground: Diarrheal disease is the most common cause of illness and the second leading cause of child death in the world. The burden is greatest in the developing world including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia diarrhea kills half million under-five children annually secondary to pneumonia. The purpose of this study has been to identify socio-economic, demographic, environmental and behavioral factors that affecting diarrheal morbidity of under-five children in selam kebele south west Ethiopia....

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